Successful Business Partnerships

Going into business with a partner can greatly increase your chances of business success, because a partner can offer their own connections, expertise, and skills the business needs in becoming successful. Following are eight successful business partnerships that not only changed the lives of the business partners, but changed the world forever.

Apple
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak- both Jobs and Wozniak were known as outcasts, but together they formed a friendship that would have them build one of world's most famous technological companies in the world. This famous duo had been introduced by their mutual friend Bill Fernandez in 1971 when Jobs was 16 and Wozniak 21. Wozniak had shown Jobs his simple built computer machine. This impressed Jobs and he believed he could sell the machine for a profit. It was Wozniak's computer engineering abilities combined with Job's marketing abilities that led to what we now know as Apple, Inc. In 2008, Apple had reported revenues of $ 33.04Billion and profits of $ 11.15Billion annually.

Dixie Chicks
Martie & Emily Erwin and Natalie Maines- the Dixie Chicks started with sisters Martie and Emily Erwin who played music on the street corners of Dallas for small change. The sisters later invited Natalie Maines to join their country music rock group. As of 2008 the Dixie Chicks have won 13 Grammy awards with over 27 million in record sales for their first three albums.

Dolce and Gabbana (D & G)
Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbanna- this world famous design duo met while working as assistants at an atelier in Milan. Sharing a strong passion for fashion, they made their name together in 1985 when Milano Collezioni invited them to take part in a fashion show launch. By 1997, their company had a reported turnover of â'¤400Million.

Google
Larry Page and Sergey Brin- Google started in 1996 as a research project by Page while he was undertaking his Ph.D at Stanford University. Page was joined by Sergey Brin, also a Stanford University PhD student. Together they worked day and night to create the largest and most popular search engine in history. In 2006 Google reported an advertising revenue of US $ 10.492 billion and in March 2009 Google's market cap was reported at $ 103.15Billion.

Kate Moss
Kate Moss and Sarah Doukas- Kate Moss, age 14, was approached by Sarah Doukas-founder-Storm Model Management in the JFK Airport in New York City after returning from a family holiday vacation. Kate Moss since then has appeared on over 300 magazine covers and is rated as number two on the Forbes 15 richest supermodels list.

Microsoft
Bill Gates and Paul Allen- met and had become friends at Lakeside School in Seattle. Gates and Allen worked day and night together to create the first microcomputer basic. This led to the creation of one of the most successful and largest US corporations in history, as well as placing Gates and Allen among the richest people in the world.

Proactiv
Dr. Katie Rodan and Dr. Kathy Fields- met during their medical residences at Stanford University. In working together they were able to create one of the best selling acne treatments known as Proactiv® Soultions with over $ 850Million in sales annually.

Siegfried & Roy
Martin Siegfried and Roy Horn-shared more than just their love for magic. They both had fathers who were abusive alcoholics and soldiers of Hitler's army. Determined to leave their difficult pasts behind them, Siegfried and Roy had taken positions to work on the same ocean liner. It was here on the ocean liner they met and discovered they shared a passion and desire to perform their magic before live audiences. This connection would lead them to achieving the most sold out, gross profit producing show in Vegas history with an annual payment of $ 36Million per year. A quote by Siegfried and Roy on their website could not be any more perfect in describing their success, "We followed our dreams, for dreams were all we had. In the process our lives became magical."

Source by Genyfer Spark

Spiritual Isolation in Carson McCullers' The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter

In analyzing the novel of Carson McCullers' The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter, the author uses three Sociological Theories of Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckman on 'Socialization: The Internalization of Society', Presentation of Self in Everyday Life by Eving Goffman and Emile Durkheim's "Social Facts" and "Suicide" to probe on the motives and behavior of characters, the reasons of their loneliness, hatred, love, faith, inner conflict and their moral and spiritual isolation.

Only when he has achieved this degree of internalization is an individual a member of society. The process by which this is brought about by socialization, which may be thus be defined as the comprehensive and consistent introduction of an individual into the objective world of society or a sector of it. Primary socialization is the first socialization an individual undergoes which he becomes a member of society. Secondary socialization is any subsequent process that inducts an already socialized individual into new sectors of the objective world of his society.

It is at once evident that primary socialization is usually the most important one for an individual and that the basic structure of all secondary socialization has to resemble that of primary socialization. Every individual is born into an objective social structure within which he encounters the significant others who are in charge of his socialization. The significant others are imposed on him … The significant others who mediate this world to him modify it in the course of mediating it. It is noteworthy to say that all five major characters in the novel exhibit their own location in the social structure and also by virtue of their individual, biographically rooted idiosyncrasies. The coloration of the characters, their suffering and how they respond to it, whether social, emotional, psychological or mental is wholly affected by their significant others. Hence, traits like reticence or loquacity, prudence or tactlessness, contentment or discontentment, bitter resentment, rebelliousness or other characters of the parents or siblings may be absorbed.

Primary socialization involves emotional learning. Indeed, there is a good reason to believe that without such emotional attachment to significant others, the learning process would be difficult if not impossible .. The child identifies with the significant others in a variety of emotional ways.

What is important to consider is the fact that the individual not only takes on the roles and attitudes of others, but in the same process takes on their world. To be given an identity involves being assigned a specific place in the world. Because the identity is subjectively appropriated by the child or person (Mr. Singer, deaf-mute), so is the world is the world to this identity points.

Primary socialization creates in the child's consciousness a progressive abstraction from the roles and attitudes of specific others to roles and general. For example, in the internalization of norms, there is a progression, from Mick Kelly as boyish to Mick Kelly as ladylike, Bubber from childish to isolated child after he accidentally shot Baby.

After the primary socialization is internalized, it is the language that a child has to internalize. With language, and by means of it, various motivational and interpretative schemes are internalized as institutionally defined-wanting to act as a brave little boy, the word brave if internalized results to a brave boy and coward to a coward boy. This program both, the applicable and the anticipatory, differentiate one's identity from that of others- such as girls, slave boys or boys from another clan. Finally, there is internalization of rudiments of the legitimating apparatus.

Primary and secondary socialization are never total and never finished.

Goffman says that when an individual appears in the presence of others, there will usually be some reason for him to mobilize his activity so that it will convey an impression to others that is in his interests to convey.

He approaches the human being as an actor performing on stage. In summary, he explains that others seek to know who we are. We control our actions to give off the picture we want to give off; others will also seek to act to control the definition of the situation; a working consensus is created; ongoing interaction may question the picture and preventive tactics help preserve the interaction and keep actors from the embarrassment.

John Singer is the focal point of the other four main characters in The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter. Chapters narrated from Singer's point of view open the and close the first and second parts of the novel. The deaf-mute, as the society or his secondary socialization has identified him, Singer is a silver engraver at a local jewelry store; for ten years he has lived with his close friend Spiros Antonapoulos, another deaf-mute. Singer never seems to realize that he puts almost all of the effort into his friendship with Antonapoulos, but he is happy in this obliviousness. After Antonapoulos is taken away to an insane asylum at the end of Part One, Singer grows very sad and lonely and moves in as a boarder with the Kelly family. Antonapalous is considered by Singer as his immediate significant other and that his actions are largely affected by his friend that led to his suicide when he learned of Antonapalous' death.

The second part chronicles the other characters' increasing dependence various presentation of themselves everyday to Singer. Each of them creates his or her own individual conception of who Singer is; because Singer himself can not speak, he can not refute or disillusion them. Singer demonstrates one of McCullers's main themes and one of her counter- themes, as he plays one role with Antonapoulos and another with the four other main characters. Singer's devotion to Antonapoulos is McCullers's means of exploring the human struggle to be loved and to express oneself. On the other hand, Singer is an object of such adoration and devotion from the other characters as he attracted all of them individually to share his silence and loneliness and yet finding solace or peace or even fulfillment when characters talk to him that they can not verbalize to others.

Mick, with her rebellious and courageous spirit as she moves from childhood into adolescence, is the other strong focal point of the narrative. There are more chapters devoted to Mick's point of view than to any other character in the novel. Mick, had serious ambitions of becoming a concert pianist when she grew up. Mick's attachment to music is important not only as a defining character trait but also because McCullers' musical sensibility shapes the entire structure of The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter; indeed, she once referred to the book as a three-part fugue. Throughout the novel, music symbolizes Mick's energy and her pursuit of beauty; she stores it in the "inner room" of her mind, to which only she and Singer have access. Mick's plans to build a violin from scratch, for example, arise from her "inner room." Consequently, her frustration when the violin does not work is more violent than if the idea had been conceived in her "outer room" -the part of her that she allows to interact with the outside world. Her interaction with her family, especially to her siblings vary and much more different when she interacts with the other four major characters. She hates her sisters who are lazy. She continuously shows affection for Ralph and Bubber.

Mick is the most positive and hopeful character in the novel. The fact that Mick is a child at the beginning of the novel, it provides the opportunity to portray the funny and poignant moments that accompany Mick's coming of age. At her worst, Mick frightens her little brother Bubber into running away after he accidentally shoots Baby in the head with a BB gun; at her best, she heroically offers to quit school so that she can work at Woolworth's to help her poverty-stricken family. At the end of the novel, Mick's final words indicate to us that her inner world remains intact and that she will continue to fight to achieve her ambitions. Her contact to real world allows her more to grow and mature with Harry as her first kiss and Mr. Singer as her long time "crush".

Biff Brannon is one of the more bizarre if not grotesque characters in the novel. Like Singer, he is distanced, observant, and quiet influenced by his past. However, none of Biff's observations cohere into any greater insight or concept of humanity; instead, they stand as isolated, unconnected fragments that offer us only puzzling and contradictory impulses that are never satisfactorily explained. When we see Biff interact with his wife, Alice, at the beginning of the novel, it is clear that the two do not feel any great love for one another after fifteen years of marriage. We also learn that Biff is impotent, though we are never told if this condition is just a problem he has in his relations with Alice or whether it extends to other women as well. Throughout the novel we perceive that Biff also has a strong desire to have children of his own; he wishes that Mick and his niece, Baby, were his own children.

Biff clearly has unresolved sexual anxieties, but their exact nature is never made clear. He keeps all the parts of his life compartmentalized-the past from the present, his life upstairs in his room from his life downstairs in the restaurant, and his marital relationship from his sexual life. At one point, we learn that Biff chivalrously beat up his sister-in-law's husband when he bragged about beating her; yet after Alice dies, Biff starts to sew and use his wife's perfume, expressing an unexpected feminine side to his personality. No one explains or integrates these conflicting impulses, which leaves us to assume that Biff himself is unable to resolve these inner conflicts.

Dr. Benedict Copeland is perhaps the most noble character in the entire story, as his name suggests of goodness, as a black man who has made many personal sacrifices to devote his entire life's work to furthering the education and uplift of the black community. Dr. Copeland went to the North as a young man to get a college education, and then came back to the South to put his education to good use among the impoverished black community. He speaks very carefully and articulately, never once using the colloquial slang that characterizes the speech of the other black characters, such as his daughter, Portia, and his son Willie. Dr. Copeland feels a constant frustration with what he perceives as the ignorance of black people and their blind acceptance of an inferior societal position-a clear parallel to Jake Blount's frustration with the ignorance of lower-class workers. Dr. Copeland feels that education and strong teachers and leaders are the best means of combating black ignorance and poverty, but he is unable to find anyone of his own race who can help him with his goals. Dr. Copeland constantly feels alienated from both his own family and the broader black community, largely due to his radical views. Dr. Copeland's children have largely accepted the position white society has given them; all of them except Portia are afraid to even come to his house to visit because they know he will chastise them for the choices they have made in their lives.

Dr. Copeland, like Jake Blount, is a Marxist, but he does not have the same confused conception of the theory's implementation that Blount does. At the end of Part Two, when the two men finally discuss their political views, their personal, educational, and racial differences make it almost impossible for them to communicate; as a result, neither recognizes the other as a fellow reformer. Dr. Copeland's brand of Marxism is so highly intellectualized that he communicates his theory no more effectively than Jake does with his drunken rambling. Jake is a wanderer who comes to town with confused and passionate plans for a socialist revolt. He drinks almost constantly for the first few weeks he is in town, spending almost all his time at Biff Brannon's New York Café. Once Jake meets Singer and decides that Singer, like him, "knows," he stays in town and gets a job at a local carnival. Of all the characters, Jake is the most prone to violent outbursts and genuine mental instability-his speech is never constant in tone, changing from intellectual to crass to boisterous to rage at a moment's notice. He is constantly consumed with his desire to see workers rise up in revolt; the only time he ceases to think about how to achieve his misguided socialist reforms is when he drinks himself into a stupor.

Jake is also the least sensitive of all of the characters, and he is no expert at personal interaction. All of the other main characters have other friends, acquaintances, or family outside of their relationship with Singer, but Jake confides in nobody else except the deaf-mute. After Singer dies, Jake is blindingly angry that he has spent so much time telling his dreams and plans to a man who is now dead. At the end of the novel, Jake leaves town to search for another person who will share his views and collaborate with him in his plans for violent revolt and revolution.

Man's constant struggle and his success or defeat against moral and spiritual isolation is very vivid in the novel. Each of the five main characters strives to break out of his or her isolated existence. The reasons each character is isolated are very different: the deaf-mute John Singer can not communicate with most of the world because he can not speak; Mick Kelly can not communicate with anyone in her family because they do not share her intelligence and ambition; Biff Brannon is left alone when his wife dies; Dr. Copeland is alienated from his family and from other black people because of his education and viewpoints; Jake Blount is alone is his radical social viewpoints and in the fact that he is a newcomer in town.

The isolation from which each character suffers is a combination of personal and environmental factors. According to Emile Durkheim, society is composed of "organs" called social facts which are: A.) Material social facts such as 1.) society 2.) structural components of society like the church and state 3.) morphological components of society like population and housing and B.) Non Material social Facts like 1.) morality 2.) collective conscience 3.) collective representation and 4.) social currents which affects people the way they are. However, all of the characters feel profoundly alone in some sense or another, and all of them desperately need to communicate their feelings with somebody who understands them. All five, with the exception of Biff, confide in Singer the things that make them spiritually lonesome caused by the absence of religion or God. In contrast Portia, Willie and Highboy and other colored minor characters, Presbyterian members, find peace amidst black community persecution. Though it is never made clear, the only reason Biff does not discuss his personal conflicts with Singer is most likely because Biff himself is unable to articulate these personal conflicts. Regardless, Biff still finds Singer's presence comforting. After talking to Singer, the characters almost always feel soothed.

The novelist explores the idea that all people feel a need to create some sort of guiding principle or god. However, whatever each person conceives of in this godlike role is merely his or her own fantasy; it has no basis in reality, just as those who believe in God have no proof that He actually exists. Singer becomes a pseudo-religious figure for the main characters of the novel; they believe he has infinite and unending wisdom about many things, and they turn to him in times of trouble, constantly asking him to help them achieve their goals and assuage their fears and doubts.

Each character creates a different god in Singer. For Mick, Singer is a man who feels as she does about music and whom she can ask very personal questions-things she has never said to anyone before. For Dr. Copeland, Singer is an the only enlightened white man he has ever met, the only one who understands the Doctor's burning passion to achieve justice for black people in the world. For Blount, Singer is a man who shares his deep concern about the importance of socialist revolution and the eradication of capitalism. For Biff, Singer is, like Biff himself, a quiet and astute observer of the human condition who ponders many things in great depth.

In reality, however, Singer is none of these things; he is merely an ordinary, intelligent man who only wants to be with his friend Antonapoulos. Singer can not understand why all these other people come to him for advice on topics with which he has no expertise or even familiarity. It is ironic that Singer-a character the others blindly make out to be a sort of god-is just as prone to the same blind faith, which we see in his love for Antonapoulos. Singer believes that Antonapoulos is a wise, kindhearted person, and he worships his friend unremittingly. Meanwhile, it is clear to us that all the evidence suggests Antonapoulos is actually coarse, selfish, and lazy. In the end, we see that all the major characters are deluding themselves by believing only what they wish about John Singer. Nonetheless, the very fact that they believe it gives them peace.

Heroism surfaces most overtly in the novel in the characters of John Singer and of Mick, the least self-absorbed of the major characters and seemingly the only ones capable of feeling genuine, unselfish love for another person. The love Singer feels for Antonapoulos demonstrates the altruism of Singer's nature: he is capable of loving someone completely without receiving any true reciprocation whatsoever. Mick also shows herself to be capable of loving someone for reasons that are not at all self-interested: she feels a deeply affectionate love for her younger brother Bubber, and she continues to feel this way even when he distances himself from her.

By the end of the novel, Mick emerges as the most heroic character when she gives up school to take on a job to help support her family. She is determined not to give up on her dreams; indeed, she is the only character who does not let Singer's death negatively affect the course her life takes. After Singer dies, Dr. Copeland's health fails and he is taken to his father-in-law's farm; Blount leaves town; Biff remains in the same monotonous existence. Mick is the only one of the major characters who maintains positive plans for the future: she is firmly resolved to continue saving for a piano, despite the fact that it will take many hours at Woolworth's before she can afford one. For Mick, there is a light at the end of the tunnel that no other character-not even Singer-sees.

Both Singer and Blount experience dreams that either are indicative of important aspects of their personalities or support some greater theme in the novel as a whole. Singer dreams that he sees Antonapoulos at the top of a flight of stairs, kneeling and holding something up in his hand. Singer is kneeling behind Antonapoulos, while Mick, Biff, Jake, and Dr. Copeland are all kneeling behind Singer. This worshipful image perfectly depicts the way that the characters feel in the story: Singer worships Antonapoulos, whereas the other four characters worship Singer. The dream represents the dynamic of the relationships in the novel as a whole.

Jake has a nightmare at the end of the book that he has had several times before. He dreams that he is in a crowd and that he is carrying a covered basket. He feels anxious because he does not know to whom to give the basket. This dream demonstrates Blount's desire to find kindred spirits who also believe in socialism, so that he can give his "basket" of beliefs to them. In the dream, Blount has been carrying the burdensome basket for a long time; in life, his socialist beliefs have burdened him for a long time as well, as there are few people with whom he can share them to relieve his thoughts.

Singer is a symbol of hope throughout the entire narrative: he embodies Mick's hopes that someday she will travel and become a famous musician, he embodies Biff's hope that he will someday find enlightenment, he embodies Dr. Copeland's hope that someday the black race will have justice, and he embodies Jake's hope that soon workers in America will understand that they are oppressed and will fight for their rights. Each character projects these qualities onto Singer, who comes to stand for all that the characters believe in their own minds. This blank-slate quality to Singer is the reason the others believe in him as they would a god: he can not directly respond to their pleas, but the mere fact that they believe in him enough to confide in him in the first place affords them at least a small measure of peace.

In conclusion, the major characters as well as the minor characters are greatly influenced by their past, their families, and people they met. Both primary socialization and secondary socialization spell out the future of their lives. Their isolation, resentment, bitterness, rebelliousness or meekness are caused according to Durkheim by many factors such as the material and non material social facts such as society, environment, church, state, morality, collective conscience, collective representation and social currents.

Source by Wilfredo M. Valois

Book Review – The Friendship Factor by Dr Alan Loy McGinness

The book, "The Friendship Factor: How To Get Close To The People You Care For", is about close relationships that is often called friendships. The subheading explains the main purpose of the book: How To Get Close to the People You Care For.

Intimacy is something that is difficult to develop but well-worth the time and energy to develop. Friendships without any degree of in-depth intimacy are just acquaintances. There is a process of developing friendships. It is more of an art than science. This book discusses reasons and factors on why you should have friendships. A variety of friendships is good for the enhancement of all your relationships.

The book has an interesting perspective that can help any relationship. It is about overloading your friendships into one person. Most people would approach friendships based on similarities such as relatives (family similarities) and then expect (with emphasis on expect) that all facets of that particular relationship to be aligned and bonding. That is not the case. You can not have one person be everything for you to the point where if that person does not fulfill that role then the friendship is doomed.

The "Friendship Factor" discusses having a variety of friendships based on different interests. You may have a group of friends who enjoy fishing or reading classical books. You can stay within the realm of that relationship based on the commonality such as fishing or classical books. Your "fishing buddies" will serve the purpose of fishing. You do not have to talk about your job with these group of friends. With the expansion of on-line communities, it is easy to meet other people with similar interests (though you have to approach this path cautiously and discretion).

It places tremendous burden on one person (eg your spouse) if you expect them to have the exact hobbies or thinking. Instead, you should consider that "variety is the spice of life" including your relationships. As a pre-caution, the type of activity can reflect on the quality of that relationship. Drinking buddies may not be the best type of friendships as it could get your in trouble such as driving under the influence. The type of activity reflects strongly on the long-term quality of that relationship.

Friendship is by choice not be chance. You have the choice to choose who to be friends with. This book gives tools to expand or enhance those friendships in your life.

Source by Pascasio JR Felisilda

Using the Switchword Pair CRYSTAL-HORSE to Increase Self-Confidence and Self-Worth

Switchwords are powerful poignant words used to connect directly to the subconscious mind, giving it direction for drawing the essence of the Switchword to you. The more a Switchword is repeated, the more it affects your energy. The more it affects your energy, the more you draw the experience, condition or response the Switchword represents to you.

CRYSTAL-HORSE – increases self-confidence and self-worth

When you need a boost in self-confidence or self-worth, try chanting CRYSTAL-HORSE.

CRYSTAL helps to clarify the situation, connect to Universal Knowledge; HORSE connects you to your strengths, your power. Together this can be a very empowering Switchword combination.

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CRYSTAL-HORSE can be added as a prefix to other Switchwords to enhance your ability to connect with the essence of those Switchwords.

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  • CRYSTAL-HORSE-ACT – increase self -confidence in speech. Need to lead a discussion? Have a meeting with a superior at work? When you wish to present yourself well to others, chant a few times before (or just as you are) entering the situation.
  • CRYSTAL-HORSE-CHUCKLE – increase self -confidence and turn on personality. Want to be the life of the party? Want people to gravitate to you? Want to make friends? When you wish to turn on the charisma and increase your popularity in a group, chan as you are about to enter a situation with other people.
  • CRYSTAL-HORSE-LISTEN – increase self -confidence and self-worth by listening to (and following) Inner Guidance. Feel disconnected from yourself, your world? Having difficulty finding your way? Decisions and choices seem impossible? Always second-guessing yourself? Chant for 2-3 minutes first thing in the morning, before getting out of bed, and allow yourself to connect. Then through the day, as you find yourself wavering, not knowing, chant a few times and connect to your Inner Guidance, self-confidence and self-worth.

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CRYSTAL-HORSE can be used as a suffix to other Switchwords to be enhanced by them.

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  • VIBRANT-CRYSTAL-HORSE – be a strong presence with increased self-confidence and self-worth. Want to stand out in a crowd, and feel confident while doing so? Want to stand up for yourself? Want to bring power and confidence to a situation? Chant to come into your power, stand up for yourself and stand out in a crowd.
  • WHIMSICAL-CRYSTAL-HORSE – be innovative with confidence. Looking to bring new things into your life? Want to come up with unique ideas in your work? Want to create an event to remember? Chant to bring you to a creative space and give you the confidence to follow through on it.
  • YES! -CRYSTAL-HORSE – be enthusiastic , energized and full of self-confidence. Need a shot of enthusiasm? Life been a bit too boring lately? Chant to help bring enthusiasm back and energize yourself and bring yourself to a space of self-confidence.
  • ELATE-CRYSTAL-HORSE – turn setbacks into uplifts, build self-confidence and self-worth. Been having a lot of setbacks affecting your self-confidence? Feel like everything is going wrong? Life seem to be pushing you around? Chant to find a way to turn those setbacks into uplifts and to help restore your self-confidence.

Take these for a spin. See how they work for you. Let us know your experiences.

Source by Kat P Miller

Pathological Eating Disorders and Poly-Behavioral Addiction

When considering that pathological eating disorders and their related diseases now afflict more people globally than malnutrition, some experts in the medical field are presently purporting that the world's number one health problem is no longer heart disease or cancer, but obesity. According to the World Health Organization (June, 2005), "obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults overweight – at least 300 million of them clinically obese – and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability. Often coexisting in developing countries with under-nutrition, obesity is a complex condition, with serious social and psychological dimensions, affecting virtually all ages and socioeconomic groups. "The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (June, 2005), reports that" during the past 20 years, obesity among adults has risen significantly in the United States. The latest data from the National Center for Health Statistics show that 30 percent of US adults 20 years of age and older – over 60 million people – are obese. This increase is not limited to adults. The percentage of young people who are overweight has more than tripled since 1980. Among children and teens aged 6-19 years, 16 percent (over 9 million young people) are considered overweight. "

Morbid obesity is a condition that is described as being 100lbs. or more above ideal weight, or having a Body Mass Index (BMI) equal to or greater than 30. Being obese alone puts one at a much greater risk of suffering from a combination of several other metabolic factors such as having high blood pressure, being insulin resistant, and / or having abnormal cholesterol levels that are all related to a poor diet and a lack of exercise. The sum is greater than the parts. Each metabolic problem is a risk for other diseases separately, but together they multiply the chances of life-threatening illness such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke, etc. Up to 30.5% of our Nations' adults suffer from morbid obesity, and two thirds or 66% of adults are overweight measured by having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 25. Considering that the US population is now over 290,000,000, some estimate that up to 73,000,000 Americans could benefit from some type of education awareness and / or treatment for a pathological eating disorder or food addiction. Typically, eating patterns are considered pathological problems when issues concerning weight and / or eating habits, (eg, overeating, under eating, binging, purging, and / or obsessing over diets and calories, etc.) become the focus of a persons' life , causing them to feel shame, guilt, and embarrassment with related symptoms of depression and anxiety that cause significant maladaptive social and / or occupational impairment in functioning.

We must consider that some people develop dependencies on certain life-functioning activities such as eating that can be just as life threatening as drug addiction and just as socially and psychologically damaging as alcoholism. Some do suffer from hormonal or metabolic disorders, but most obese individuals simply consume more calories than they burn due to an out of control overeating Food Addiction. Hyper-obesity resulting from gross, habitual overeating is considered to be more like the problems found in those ingrained personality disorders that involve loss of control over appetite of some kind (Orford, 1985). Binge-eating Disorder episodes are characterized in part by a feeling that one can not stop or control how much or what one is eating (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). Lienard and Vamecq (2004) have proposed an "auto-addictive" hypothesis for pathological eating disorders. They report that, "eating disorders are associated with abnormal levels of endorphins and share clinical similarities with psychoactive drug abuse. The key role of endorphins has recently been demonstrated in animals with regard to certain aspects of normal, pathological and experimental eating habits (food restriction combined with stress, loco-motor hyperactivity). "They report that the" pathological management of eating disorders may lead to two extreme situations: the absence of ingestion (anorexia) and excessive ingestion (bulimia). "

Co-morbidity & Mortality

Addictions and other mental disorders as a rule do not develop in isolation. The National Co-morbidity Survey (NCS) that sampled the entire US population in 1994, found that among non-institutionalized American male and female adolescents and adults (ages 15-54), roughly 50% had a diagnosable Axis I mental disorder at some time in their lives. This survey's results indicated that 35% of males will at some time in their lives have abused substances to the point of qualifying for a mental disorder diagnosis, and nearly 25% of women will have qualified for a serious mood disorder (mostly major depression). A significant finding of note from the NCS study was the widespread occurrence of co-morbidity among diagnosed disorders. It specifically found that 56% of the respondents with a history of at least one disorder also had two or more additional disorders. These persons with a history of three or more co-morbid disorders were estimated to be one-sixth of the US population, or some 43 million people (Kessler, 1994).

McGinnis and Foege, (1994) report that, "the most prominent contributors to mortality in the United States in 1990 were tobacco (an estimated 400,000 deaths), diet and activity patterns (300,000), alcohol (100,000), microbial agents (90,000) , toxic agents (60,000), firearms (35,000), sexual behavior (30,000), motor vehicles (25,000), and illicit use of drugs (20,000). Acknowledging that the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality was risky behavior lifestyles, the US Prevention Services Task Force set out to research behavioral counseling interventions in health care settings (Williams & Wilkins, 1996).

Poor Prognosis

We have come to realize today more than any other time in history that the treatment of lifestyle diseases and addictions are often a difficult and frustrating task for all concerned. Repeated failures abound with all of the addictions, even with utilizing the most effective treatment strategies. But why do 47% of patients treated in private treatment programs (for example) relapse within the first year following treatment (Gorski, T., 2001)? Have addiction specialists become conditioned to accept failure as the norm? There are many reasons for this poor prognosis. Some would proclaim that addictions are psychosomatically- induced and maintained in a semi-balanced force field of driving and restraining multidimensional forces. Others would say that failures are due simply to a lack of self-motivation or will power. Most would agree that lifestyle behavioral addictions are serious health risks that deserve our attention, but could it possibly be that patients with multiple addictions are being under diagnosed (with a single dependence) simply due to a lack of diagnostic tools and resources that are incapable of resolving the complexity of assessing and treating a patient with multiple addictions?

Diagnostic Delineation

Thus far, the DSM-IV-TR has not delineated a diagnosis for the complexity of multiple behavioral and substance addictions. It has reserved the Poly-substance Dependence diagnosis for a person who is repeatedly using at least three groups of substances during the same 12-month period, but the criteria for this diagnosis do not involve any behavioral addiction symptoms. In the Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition's section (DSM-IV-TR, 2000); maladaptive health behaviors (eg, overeating, unsafe sexual practices, excessive alcohol and drug use, etc.) may be listed on Axis I only if they are significantly affecting the course of treatment of a medical or mental condition.

Since successful treatment outcomes are dependent on thorough assessments, accurate diagnoses, and comprehensive individualized treatment planning, it is no wonder that repeated rehabilitation failures and low success rates are the norm instead of the exception in the addictions field, when the latest DSM-IV- TR does not even include a diagnosis for multiple addictive behavioral disorders. Treatment clinics need to have a treatment planning system and referral network that is equipped to thoroughly assess multiple addictive and mental health disorders and related treatment needs and comprehensively provide education / awareness, prevention strategy groups, and / or specific addictions treatment services for individuals diagnosed with multiple addictions. Written treatment goals and objectives should be specified for each separate addiction and dimension of an individuals' life, and the desired performance outcome or completion criteria should be specifically stated, behaviorally based (a visible activity), and measurable.

New Proposed Diagnosis

To assist in resolving the limited DSM-IV-TRs' diagnostic capability, a multidimensional diagnosis of "Poly-behavioral Addiction," is proposed for more accurate diagnosis leading to more effective treatment planning. This diagnosis encompasses the broadest category of addictive disorders that would include an individual manifesting a combination of substance abuse addictions, and other obsessively-compulsive behavioral addictive behavioral patterns to pathological gambling, religion, and / or sex / pornography, etc.). Behavioral addictions are just as damaging – psychologically and socially as alcohol and drug abuse. They are comparative to other life-style diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease in their behavioral manifestations, their etiologies, and their resistance to treatments. They are progressive disorders that involve obsessive thinking and compulsive behaviors. They are also characterized by a preoccupation with a continuous or periodic loss of control, and continuous irrational behavior in spite of adverse consequences.

Poly-behavioral addiction would be described as a state of periodic or chronic physical, mental, emotional, cultural, sexual and / or spiritual / religious intoxication. These various types of intoxication are produced by repeated obsessive thoughts and compulsive practices involved in pathological relationships to any mood-altering substance, person, organization, belief system, and / or activity. The individual has an overpowering desire, need or compulsion with the presence of a tendency to intensify their adherence to these practices, and evidence of phenomena of tolerance, abstinence and withdrawal, in which there is always physical and / or psychic dependence on the effects of this pathological relationship. In addition, there is a 12 – month period in which an individual is pathologically involved with three or more behavioral and / or substance use addictions simultaneously, but the criteria are not met for dependence for any one addiction in particular (Slobodzien, J., 2005). In essence, Poly-behavioral addiction is the synergistically integrated chronic dependence on multiple physiologically addictive substances and behaviors (eg, using / abusing substances – nicotine, alcohol, & drugs, and / or acting impulsively or obsessively compulsive in regards to gambling, food binging , sex, and / or religion, etc.) simultaneously.

New Proposed Theory

The Addictions Recovery Measurement System's (ARMS) theory is a nonlinear, dynamical, non-hierarchical model that focuses on interactions between multiple risk factors and situational determinants similar to catastrophe and chaos theories in predicting and explaining addictive behaviors and relapse. Multiple influences trigger and operate within high-risk situations and influence the global multidimensional functioning of an individual. The process of relapse incorporates the interaction between background factors (eg, family history, social support, years of possible dependence, and co-morbid psychopathology), physiological states (eg, physical withdrawal), cognitive processes (eg, self-efficacy, cravings , motivation, the abstinence violation effect, outcome expectancies), and coping skills (Brownell et al., 1986; Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). To put it simply, small changes in an individual's behavior can result in large qualitative changes at the global level and patterns at the global level of a system emerge solely from numerous little interactions.

The ARMS hypothesis purports that there is a multidimensional synergistically negative resistance that individual's develop to any one form of treatment to a single dimension of their lives, because the effects of an individual's addiction have dynamically interacted multi-dimensionally. Having the primary focus on one dimension is insufficient. Traditionally, addiction treatment programs have failed to accommodate for the multidimensional synergistically negative effects of an individual having multiple addictions, (eg nicotine, alcohol, and obesity, etc.). Behavioral addictions interact negatively with each other and with strategies to improve overall functioning. They tend to encourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, help increase violence, decrease functional capacity, and promote social isolation. Most treatment theories today involve assessing other dimensions to identify dual diagnosis or co-morbidity diagnoses, or to assess contributing factors that may play a role in the individual's primary addiction. The ARMS 'theory proclaims that a multidimensional treatment plan must be devised addressing the possible multiple addictions identified for each one of an individual's life dimensions in addition to developing specific goals and objectives for each dimension.

The ARMS acknowledges the complexity and unpredictable nature of lifestyle addictions following the commitment of an individual to accept assistance with changing their lifestyles. The Stages of Change model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984) is supported as a model of motivation, incorporating five stages of readiness to change: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. The ARMS theory supports the constructs of self-efficacy and social networking as outcome predictors of future behavior across a wide variety of lifestyle risk factors (Bandura, 1977). The Relapse Prevention cognitive-behavioral approach (Marlatt, 1985) with the goal of identifying and preventing high-risk situations for relapse is also supported within the ARMS theory.

The ARMS continues to promote Twelve Step Recovery Groups such as Food Addicts and Alcoholics Anonymous along with spiritual and religious recovery activities as a necessary means to maintain outcome effectiveness. The beneficial effects of AA may be attributable in part to the replacement of the participant's social network of drinking friends with a fellowship of AA members who can provide motivation and support for maintaining abstinence (Humphreys, K .; Mankowski, ES, 1999) and ( Morgenstern, J .; Labouvie, E .; McCrady, BS; Kahler, CW; and Frey, RM, 1997). In addition, AA's approach often results in the development of coping skills, many of which are similar to those taught in more structured psychosocial treatment settings, thereby leading to reductions in alcohol consumption (NIAAA, June 2005).

Treatment Progress Dimensions

The American Society of Addiction Medicine's (2003), "Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition", has set the standard in the field of addiction treatment for recognizing the totality of the individual in his or her life situation . This includes the internal interconnection of multiple dimensions from biomedical to spiritual, as well as external relationships of the individual to the family and larger social groups. Life-style addictions may affect many domains of an individual's functioning and frequently require multi-modal treatment. Real progress however, requires appropriate interventions and motivating strategies for every dimension of an individual's life.

The Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) has identified the following seven treatment progress areas (dimensions) in an effort to: (1) assist clinicians with identifying additional motivational techniques that can increase an individual's awareness to make progress: (2) measure within treatment progress, and (3) measure after treatment outcome effectiveness:

PD- 1. Abstinence / Relapse: Progress Dimension

PD- 2. Bio-medical / Physical: Progress Dimension

PD- 3. Mental / Emotional: Progress Dimension

PD- 4. Social / Cultural: Progress Dimension

PD- 5. Educational / Occupational: Progress Dimension

PD- 6. Attitude / Behavioral: Progress Dimension

PD- 7. Spirituality / Religious: Progress Dimension

Considering that addictions involve unbalanced life-styles operating within semi-stable equilibrium force fields, the ARMS philosophy promotes that positive treatment effectiveness and successful outcomes are the result of a synergistic relationship with "The Higher Power," that spiritually elevates and connects an individuals' multiple life functioning dimensions by reducing chaos and increasing resilience to bring an individual harmony, wellness, and productivity.

Addictions Recovery Measurement – Subsystems

Since chronic lifestyle diseases and disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, alcoholism, drug and behavioral addictions can not be cured, but only managed – how should we effectively manage poly-behavioral addiction?

The Addiction Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) is proposed utilizing a multidimensional integrative assessment, treatment planning, treatment progress, and treatment outcome measurement tracking system that facilitates rapid and accurate recognition and evaluation of an individual's comprehensive life-functioning progress dimensions. The "ARMS" – systematically, methodically, interactively, & spiritually combines the following five versatile subsystems that may be utilized individually or incorporated together:

1) The Prognostication System – composed of twelve screening instruments developed to evaluate an individual's total life-functioning dimensions for a comprehensive bio-psychosocial assessment for an objective 5-Axis diagnosis with a point-based Global Assessment of Functioning score;

2) The Target Intervention System – that includes the Target Intervention Measure (TIM) and Target Progress Reports (A) & (B), for individualized goal-specific treatment planning;

3) The Progress Point System – a standardized performance-based motivational recovery point system utilized to produce in-treatment progress reports on six life-functioning individual dimensions;

4) The Multidimensional Tracking System – with its Tracking Team Surveys (A) & (B), along with the ARMS Discharge criteria guidelines utilizes a multidisciplinary tracking team to assist with discharge planning; and

5) The Treatment Outcome Measurement System – that utilizes the following two measurement instruments: (a) The Treatment Outcome Measure (TOM); and (b) the Global Assessment of Progress (GAP), to assist with aftercare treatment planning.

National Movement

With the end of the Cold War, the threat of a world nuclear war has diminished considerably. It may be hard to imagine that in the end, comedians may be exploiting the humor in the fact that it was not nuclear warheads, but "French fries" that annihilated the human race. On a more serious note, lifestyle diseases and addictions are the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, yet brief preventive behavioral assessments and counseling interventions are under-utilized in health care settings (Whitlock, 2002).

The US Preventive Services Task Force concluded that effective behavioral counseling interventions that address personal health practices hold greater promise for improving overall health than many secondary preventive measures, such as routine screening for early disease (USPSTF, 1996). Common health-promoting behaviors include healthy diet, regular physical exercise, smoking cessation, appropriate alcohol / medication use, and responsible sexual practices to include use of condoms and contraceptives.

350 national organizations and 250 State public health, mental health, substance abuse, and environmental agencies support the US Department of Health and Human Services, "Healthy People 2010" program. This national initiative recommends that primary care clinicians utilize clinical preventive assessments and brief behavioral counseling for early detection, prevention, and treatment of lifestyle disease and addiction indicators for all patients' upon every healthcare visit.

Partnerships and coordination among service providers, government departments, and community organizations in providing treatment programs are a necessity in addressing the multi-task solution to poly-behavioral addiction. I encourage you to support the mental health and addiction programs in America, and hope that the (ARMS) resources can assist you to personally fight the War on pathological eating disorders within poly-behavioral addiction.

For more info see:
Poly-Behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System,
By James Slobodzien, Psy.D., CSAC at:

[Http://www.geocities.com/drslbdzn/Behavioral-Addictions.html]

Addicts Anonymous Food: Http://www.foodaddictsanonymous.org/
Anonymous Alcoholics: Http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org/

References
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition,
Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 787 & p. 731.
American Society of Addiction Medicine's (2003), "Patient Placement Criteria for the
Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition ,. Retrieved, June 18, 2005, from:

http://www.asam.org/
Bandura, A. (1977), Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review,
84.191-215.
Brownell, KD, Marlatt, GA, Lichtenstein, E., & Wilson, GT (1986). Understanding and preventing relapse. American Psychologist, 41, 765-782.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). June 18 Retrieved, 2005, from: Http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/
Gorski, T. (2001), Relapse Prevention In The Managed Care Environment. GORSKI-CENAPS Web
2010. Retrieved People Healthy June 20, 2005, from: Http://www.healthypeople.gov/
Publications. June 20 Retrieved, 2005, from: Http://www.tgorski.com
Lienard, J. & Vamecq, J. (2004), Presse Med, Oct 23; 33 (18 Suppl): 33-40.
Marlatt, GA (1985). Relapse prevention: Theoretical rationale and overview of the model. In GA
Marlatt & JR Gordon (Eds.), Relapse prevention (pp. 250-280). New York: Guilford Press.
McGinnis JM, Foege WH (1994). Actual causes of death in the United States. US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC 20201
Humphreys, K .; Mankowski, ES; Moos, RH; and Finney, JW (1999). Do enhanced friendship networks and active coping mediate the effect of self-help groups on substance abuse? Ann Behav Med 21 (1): 54-60.
Kessler, RC, McGonagle, KA, Zhao, S., Nelson, CB, Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H. H, -U, & Kendler, KS (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United
States: Results from the national co morbidity survey. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 51, 8-19.
Morgenstern, J .; Labouvie, E .; McCrady, BS; Kahler, CW; and Frey, RM (1997). Affiliation with Alcoholics Anonymous after treatment: A study of its therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action. J Consult Clin Psychol 65 (5): 768-777.
Orford, J. (1985). Excessive appetites: A psychological view of addiction. New York: Wiley.
Prochaska, JO, & DiClemente, CC (1984). The transtheoretical approach: Crossing the boundaries of therapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger.
Slobodzien, J. (2005). Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), Booklocker.com, Inc., p. 5.
Whitlock, EP (1996). Evaluating Primary Care Behavioral Counseling Interventions: An Evidence-based Approach. Am J Prev Med 2002; 22 (4): 267-84.Williams & Wilkins. US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Alexandria, VA.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition). Washington, DC: US ​​Government Printing Office; 2000.
World Health Organization, (WHO). June 18 Retrieved, 2005, from: Http://www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/

Source by James Slobodzien

The Difference Between Good Friends and Bad Friends

Friends are a part of our lives. As the saying goes, a life without friends is a life without a sun. So, you can definitely see the importance of friends. However, friends can be divided into two groups, which are good friends and bad friends. When making friends, you should learn to distinguish between good and bad friends.

As for me, having one true friend is better than having a hundred bad friends. Do not you agree? A real friend is someone who you can trust very much. You can tell him or her anything without reward. And you will treat him or her sincerely. On the contrary, a bad friend is someone who will try every means to obtain benefits from you. Thus, we must be careful in choosing friends.

Here I have a humble suggestion. A friend who always treats people with honesty is a good friend. Inversely, a friend who flatters you to your face is not true friend. All in all, we must make friends with those who have good character and a kind heart. On the other hand, we should do our best to avoid keeping company with people who tells you to smoke cigarettes, steal from stores, lie to parents, or do drugs. These people will never be worthy to be your friends because they believe that being bad and rebellious is a good thing in society; they just have been watching too many movies.

The worst feeling in the world is to be alone and have nobody to share feelings with. Let me tell you my experience. I have a friend named Kelly. She is my most reliable and closest friend. This happened in high school. Under the pressure of studying, I often felt nervous and uneasy at that time. And I did not have the courage to share my feelings with my family. On the other hand, Kelly was always by my side and she encouraged me. Thanks to her, I was able to control my emotions. Whenever I am in difficulty, she would encourage me by telling me stories of how historical heroes conquered their obstacles. Whenever I feel tired and nervous, she would relax me by singing pop songs or telling me interesting and hilarious things. Frankly speaking, I enjoy staying with her. She is really my true friend.

Now, if you share your feelings with a person whom you think is a friend to you, and that person does not pay attention to what you say, this should be able to tell you that this person is indeed not a true friend, because he / she does not care about you.

In short, friends play an important role in our lives. We seriously need to learn how to deal with the different kinds of friends we have, so we can not only protect ourselves from the bad friends, we can also stop wasting time with them.

Source by Roy Armstrong

The Importance of English-Arabic Translation

This article is devoted to the English Arabic translation; it will lay the light on the definition of translation, the importance of English Arabic translation, the difficulty idioms impose to translators, the qualities of a good translator and the necessity for translation in general.

Translation in Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed's words is: "the action or process of delivering from one language into another. It is the expression or rendering of sense of words, sentences, and passages etc from one language into another." Ulm-ul-Qur'an, Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed, IAS

The Columbia Encyclopedia defines translation as the rendering of a text into another language.

Katharine Barnwell (1986, p. 8) .defines it as follows: Translation is re-telling, as exactly as possible, the meaning of the original message in a way that is natural in the language into which the translation is being made.

Translation is much more than the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language, or the substitution of the words of one language with the words of another language, or the rendering of meaning of a text or whatsoever in one language into another, it is the bridge of appreciation and understanding among people of different cultural groups, it is the means of communication among different groups of people, the means of cultural exchange, the means of preserving cultural heritage of any nation, the means of forming ties and friendships among different groups of people, and the means of understanding and peace.

Human beings are after all not living alone and, every human being has the need and desire to know about one another, man tries to learn what other people are doing, how they are living, and how they have lived. We would like to know, apart from our different ethnicity, color, language, and culture, whether we share the same understanding of love, passion, sorrow, aspiration, sympathy, jealousy and many other respects of human nature. So as long as the desire to exists, translation will be the only bridge across which our aims are reached and our desire realized.
In the general sense, the goal of translation is to build bridges among different groups of people, but the goal of translation in the theoretical sense is to establish a relationship of equivalence between the source and the target language; it should ensure that both texts communicate the same message.

There has been debate as to whether translation is an art, a science, or a Skill. I think Translation is a combination of all of them. It is a science in the sense that it needs complete knowledge of the structure, grammar, semantics, and syntax and in general the make-up of the two languages ​​concerned. It is an art since it requires artistic talent to reconstruct the original text in the form of a product that is presentable to the reader who is not supposed to be familiar with the original. It is also a skill, because it requires attention to detail the meaning and a thorough understanding of the relationship between syntax and semantics, coupled with extensive cultural background and the ability to provide the translation of something that has no equal in the target language.

Also being a human skill, it enables human beings to exchange ideas and thoughts regardless of the different languages ​​they use. Man is endowed with the ability to convey his feelings and experience to others through language. For this process of communication man acquired both spoken language and the written language, but when human beings spread over the earth, their languages ​​differed and they needed a means through which they can communicate and interact with each others. Thus necessity for translation to convey one's feelings and experiences into the other language was felt.

Sometimes we ask ourselves, why is translation between English and Arabic important? Both Arabic and English are of the world great languages, in the book 'The Spread of English, on page 77 the writer says: "the great languages ​​of today are languages ​​of empire, past and present. Only two, Mandarin Chinese and Russian, continue as languages ​​of administration within single, ethno linguistically diverse states. The others -Arabic, English, French, and Spanish-are imperial legacies, having survived the disintegration of the empires that fostered them. "

Arabic language is one of the great world languages. there have been great languages ​​of great empires that did not survive as a great language, like Turkish for instance, when we compare Turkish with Arabic, we find out that Arabic survived the disintegration of the Arab Islamic empire and it continues to be one of the great languages ​​of the world till today, while the Turkish language which was the language of administration and authority in the middle east, Balkans, and different parts of the world that was under the Ottoman rule for a thousand years, but Turkish in the words of Fishman on page 77 in the book 'The Spread of English "' flowed back to Anatolia with the collapse of the ottoman empire '. But these words are not 100% accurate because Turkish is spoken all over Turkey and in Northern Cyprus, not only in anatolia which is only a part of Turkey. Also Turkish minorities in the former Soviet Union republics, Bulgaria, Russia, Greece, and Romania use Turkish as their mother tongue. Moreover the languages ​​of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, are all branches of the Turkic language family. Yet, no denying that Turkish language lost a lot of its importance after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

Returning to Arabic, it is one of the six official languages ​​adopted in The United Nations. Arabic is the language of a rich culture and civilization dating back many centuries; it was the language of Muhammad, the Messenger and Prophet of Allah (Allah is the Arabic word for God), and it is the language of the Holy Qura'an. It has produced great figures such as Averroes (Ibn-Roshd), the medieval Aristotelian philosopher; Ibn Khaldun, the first social historian; and Khalil Jibran. Between the eighth and the fifteenth centuries, the volume of literary, scholarly and scientific book production in Arabic and the level of urban literacy among readers of Arabic were the highest the world had ever known to that time. Islamic artists have used Arabic script as their principal art form for centuries; the beauty of their work will be revealed to anyone through the study of Arabic. Arabic is a member of the Semitic group of languages, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic, the language the Christ spoke. Moreover, Arabic is widely spoken; total speakers of Arabic exceed 350 million.

According to the Wikipedia encyclopedia, Arabic was also a major vehicle of culture, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy during the middle ages, that is why many European languages ​​have also borrowed numerous words from it.

Pamela J.Farris says in her book Language arts on page 99
"English has borrowed from Arabic algebra, candy, lemon, orange, sugar, and magazine."

Not only these words English borrowed from Arabic, but there are hundreds of other words borrowed from Arabic, there are some hundreds of the words English borrowed from Arabic in Al Mawrid English-Arabic dictionary, such as typhoon which means in Arabic 7HA'F, Spinach 3 ( 'F., and sesame which means in Arabic 3E3E.

So Arabic being one of the world great languages ​​makes translation from and into that language very important, especially English Arabic translation.

No doubt that English is a world language; nowadays it is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of numerous countries .As well as Arabic, it is one of the six official languages ​​in the United Nations

Consequently, the knowledge of the English language is one of the most important tools in achieving scientific and technological knowledge; moreover it is a tool of communication between countries, different cultural groups, various companies and organizations, communities and friends.

Translation is the tool to make use of the new technology and science. Science knowledge coupled with multiple languages ​​and cultures are increasingly important in an expanding global economy and world welfare. It is clear that Britain and the USA are the forefront of new ideas in science and technology. USA has pioneered in all fields of technology and science; accomplishments of Britain and US technology are in English, so it is very essential to know English to make use of such technology and science.

Also Political relationships, wars, and conflicts make translation so important to have access to what is going on in different parts of the world, especially Arabic English translation, as English is the language of the big powers of the world, and the Arab region is the theatre, where vital events take place at present.

No denying that English is the cornerstone of the world media, many important news sources are in English, on page 34 of the book The Spread of English the writer says: "English newspapers in non English mother-tongue countries are another indication of the world wide status of English ".

If one knows English, one can read the news and points of views of several writers around the globe, by doing so one can expand his knowledge, and get a broader outlook on the surroundings, and to look at issues with a broader perspective. In my opinion, knowing any language is an international passport specifically English.

English is also the language of communication, with the spread of internet, English appeared to be the language of communication, hundreds of millions of different races communicate with each others via the internet in English, thus English helps to strengthen ties, and make friends among different cultural groups of people on different spots of our planet.

So being the language of science technology and communication, in the age of the internet, English spread so widely, there has never been a language so widely spread in so short a time as English.

As mentioned above, both Arabic and English are great world languages, so translation between this pair of languages ​​is important and essential because of the many reasons mentioned previously.

Translation has been and continues to be the means of cultural and knowledge exchange among people throughout history, and the means of preserving cultural heritage.

As the Islamic Arabic Empire spread, the Arabic language and, indeed, culture was enriched by contacts with other civilizations: Greeks, Persians, Copts, Romans, Indians and Chinese. During the ninth and tenth centuries, a great translation movement, centered in Baghdad, was in force, in which many ancient scientific and philosophical tracts were transposed from ancient languages, especially Greek, into Arabic. Many were enhanced by the new wisdom suggested by Arab thinkers; other texts were simply preserved, only to re-emerge in Europe during the Renaissance.
Modern European languages, such as Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and English owe a great debt to Arabic. The English language itself contains many words borrowed from Arabic: algebra, alchemy, admiral, genius, ghoul, mare sherbet, soda and many others. "

By the means of translation cultural heritage is preserved and new civilizations evolved and flourished; the western civilization for instance, was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific books were translated from Arabic into different European languages, and it was the core for the current western civilization.

In the book of "Muslim Contributions to World Civilization" On page 118 we will find that, "From 1154 AC to the sixteenth century, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim scholars from Western Europe and Spain translated books from Arabic into Latin in the Toledo Academy established by Alfonso, Sabio the Wise. The translations were then distributed to academic centers in Europe, where they became the basis of the Renaissance, the revival of knowledge in Europe. "

Stanwood Cobb says: "Europe was indebted for all of its beginnings in alchemy and chemistry to the chemical science of the Arabs, which reached them through translation of Arabic works into Latin. In this science, as in other arts and sciences which they practiced, they developed an objective and experimental method as opposed to the purely speculative method of the Greeks. "
"The science of algebra owes much to gifted mathematicians of the
Islamic era. Its very name proves the magnitude of this debt, for the name itself is Arabic, al gebr, "a binding together."

"In addition to the volumes of Greek science, many scientific works of the Arabs-Avicenna, Averroes, and Rhazes in particular-were translated."

So English-Arabic translation has been and continues to be of great importance, the causes in the past and present are only different. Currently, it is well known that English Arabic translation is increasingly becoming a topic of much concern and importance these days. Oil, strategic location, history of the Islamic and different other civilizations that took place in the Arabic region, and the current events in the Middle East on the Arab side and the western desire to possess the oil and dominate the region on the Western side, contribute to this importance. This paper highlights the importance of English Arabic translation, mainly the translation of the two word English idioms into Arabic; as English language is full of idioms native speakers of English use a lot of idioms and expressions in everyday conversations, books, newspapers, magazines, TV shows on the Internet because idioms add color to the language, but at the same time, idioms are difficult to understand because their meaning is not what it appears to be at first sight. This imposes a major difficulty to translators from English into Arabic.

For example in the Telegraph newspaper dated 19/09/2006 one of the headlines reads "Police patrols at churches stepped up in Pope Row"

The Idiom 'step up is used in this article, the Idiom Connection defines the idiom' step up 'as follows "rise to a higher or more important position, be promoted"

Al Mawrid dictionary translates the idiom 'step up' as J2J / – J6'9A- J2 / '/ – J * 6'9A- JF / A9- J * B / E
In the context of the previous article, the idiom 'step up' can be translated as – J2 / '/, it is the translation of the meaning of the idiom.

A Second example in The Sunday Times dated April 30, 2006, the Idiom 'back down' is used in the following articles:

Iran's psychopath in chief, by Israel

"Britain, France, Germany and America hope to pass a resolution at the United Nations Security Council this week mandating Iran to suspend its work on uranium enrichment. If Iran refuses to back down, the security council could impose targeted sanctions."

Also in the Mail guardian online dated 07 November 2005 we will find the headline

'Blair to back down on anti-terror laws'

British Prime Minister Tony Blair reluctantly accepted on Monday that he would have to back down on proposed anti-terror laws that would enable police to hold people for up to 90 days without charging them.

Home Secretary Charles Clarke, announcing what amounts to a climbdown, said, however, that the new time limit would not be as short as the 28 days sought by critics of the new Terrorism Bill, which faces a parliamentary vote on Wednesday.

"We do not want to compromise on the 90 days at all. It will be a compromise with this nation's security," said Blair at his monthly Downing Street press conference, where he held out hope that he could yet minimise the impact.

American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms – defines the idiom '' back down as' Reverse one's upward course, descend. For example, When she saw the wasps' nest on the roof, she hastily backed down the ladder. This literal usage usually refers to something one has climbed, such as a ladder or mountain. [Mid-1800s]

Al Mawrid dictionary translates the idiom 'back down' as –J * F'2D 9F E7D (
Also 9F J * .DJ 9F – J * 1 ', 9 is a proper translation

In the previous articles, it can be translated as 9F J * .DJ 9F – J * 1 ', 9, and it is the translation of the meaning of the idiom.

Idioms are one of the factors that makes translation remain a human activity; although attempts have been made to automate and computerize the translation of natural language texts, or to use computers as an aid to translation, but translation remains mainly a human activity that needs skill, intelligence, human feeling that keeps the life and spirit of the original language to the translated text, idioms pose a challenge to any translation program. Since a lot of idioms can not be translated literally.

The right understanding of Idioms is the key to have a good translation from English into Arabic. English is full of idioms; native speakers of English use a lot of idioms and expressions in their speech and writing, in other words, native speakers of English use idioms all the time. Idioms are the grease that makes language flow, but at the same time idioms are difficult to understand because an idiom is "An expression whose meanings can not be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up." Webster's Online Dictionary, but some are easier to guess when they have some association with the original meaning of the individual words. So the translator should be aware of the idioms.

The idiom 'cold feet' which the Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary defines as: "to suddenly become too frightened to do something you had planned to do, especially something important such as getting married", whereas the American Heritage Dictionary defines the idiom 'cold feet 'as
"Fearfulness or timidity preventing the completion of a course of action".

It is used in an article in the guardian newspaper on Saturday March 25, 2006 as follows:

'Iraq hostages' were saved by rift among kidnappers'

o Guards got cold feet after American was shot

o Returning Kember 'failed to say thanks to rescuers'

Jonathan Steele in Amman, Ewen MacAskill and Richard Norton-Taylor

Saturday March 25, 2006

The Guardian

The British hostage Norman Kember and his two Canadian colleagues owe their freedom to a rift among their Iraqi kidnappers, a western security source close to the rescue operation said yesterday.

This idiom used in the previous article can be translated as AB / 'F' D-E'3 DA9D 4 & E'- FB5'F 'D4,' 9G #H 'D + B) DA9D 4 & E', the translation is the paraphrase of the idiom according to definitions given above. So the right understanding of idioms is the key to translate well.

An idiom is learned and used as a single unit of language; and should be translated in the same way. To translate idioms the translator, first of all needs to recognize idioms, understand them, know the culture from which the idiom comes, the origin, the atmosphere in which it is used, then the translator should do his / her best, at first to find an equivalent or a corresponding idiom in the target language that keeps the flavor of the original, if there is not such corresponding idiom or phrase the translator analyzes the idiom and translates the meaning of the idiom in words that keep the color and flavor of the idiom in the source language

Every language is idiomatic; each language has a certain set of rules that govern the way words are put together to express facts, ideas and feelings. The rules and their exceptions are unique to the language, despite possible similarities with other languages. In this sense, a language is always idiomatic. Within this general consideration, we usually think of 'idioms' as unique phrases: we use them to express something that other, more general sentences can not express just as well. It is important to learn idioms to be able to communicate well. They are also interesting to study because of the insight they give us into the language and the people who use them. These expressions originate in the history, literature, religion, and traditions typical of a certain community. For this reason, idioms reveal much of the way of thinking of a community.

Since idiomatic expressions are so frequently encountered in both spoken and written discourse, they require special attention in translation
the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary defines 'idiom' as: a group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words :. This means even if one knows the meaning of each word; one may not understand the idiom itself. So we can not translate the idioms correctly unless we understand their meaning. If we take into account the idiom 'New blood and translate it into Arabic (/ E, / J /) word by word, (/ E, / J /) is sometimes used in Arabic to mean young people. On one hand, it can be viewed as an equivalent, on the other hand sometimes it is hard to guess that the expression actually means 'people with a lot of energy or fresh ideas who are brought into an organization in order to improve it' as defined in Cambridge advanced Learner's dictionary, as in F- * ',' DJ / E, / J / – it can mean the need for new blood in a hospital for instance, but sometimes it can be misunderstood.

Based on the previous definition in Cambridge advanced Learner's Dictionary, the appropriate translation for this idiom is # 4.'5 EDJ &) ( 'D7'B) H' D-JHJ) H 'D # AC'1-' AC'1 H 7'B '*, / J /) .The translation here is a paraphrase.

As a matter of fact, the literal translation of an idiom is often absurd or comical. The idiom 'Back burner' literally translates into Arabic as '' D-'1B 'D.DAJ'

The literal translation in Arabic sounds comical. The Dictionary of English Idioms & Idiomatic Expressions defines it as follows: If an issue is on the back burner, it is being given low priority is 'then the right translation is -'D EF 9 / E' D'G * E'E -BDJD 'D'GEJ)
sometimes The image created by the literal meaning of an idiom is comic but sometimes it can help to remember that idiom.

Here is an example of English idioms that can be easily understood from the images they evoke. The English idiom double faced translates literally in Arabic as 0H H, GJF- (with two faces) in Arabic. So the image created by this idiom helps us to remember and understand it. So we can translate it as EF'AB 'hypocrite' in Arabic- or -E. '/ 9 deceiver (in Arabic), which will be an adequate translation. The image created by the idiom double faced can make us think of a person with two faces, which means hypocrite .Even though using the images of the literal translation is an effective and fun way to learn English idioms, the literal translation alone is deceiving in many cases

The real meaning of the English idiom has to be learned in context to be correctly understood. It is necessary to study idioms within sentences. A proper example makes the meaning and the use clear. For example the idiom sitting duck which means 'an easy target', when we learn this idiom in a sentence as in "His arguments were so simple, she was able to knock them down like sitting ducks." It will be easy to understand that the idiom means' an easy target 'and translate it into Arabic adequately, if we translate it literally in Arabic it would be (7),' D3) which does not make sense in Arabic, but the adequate translation is a paraphrase translation of the idiom which is G / A 3GD

Translation of ideas and meaning from one language to another leaves much freedom to the translator, but translation of idioms does not need only translation of ideas and meaning, the translator should keep the effect idioms give to the language as possible as the translator can. To translate idioms word-for-word "translation is inadequate and confusing, To translate idioms well, the translator must recognize idioms to be idioms, the translator must understand the goals and intents of the author of the original work; and the context in which idioms are used, then s / he should understand the meaning of the idioms, s / he should look it up in dictionaries, search on the web, ask native speakers, and understand the massage of the idiom and in what context it is used. it is good to find a similar idiom in Arabic that carries the same meaning of the English idiom, if the translator can not find so it is good to parse the idiom apart into its meaning and translate the meaning.

Katharine Barnwell says: The task of the translator is to translate the meaning of the message, rather than the words.

Bible Translation, Katharine Barnwell, 1986, p. 12.

In order to have a good translation, there must be a good translator, who should be fluent in the two languages ​​he seeks to translate between. He must understand the language which he is translating from, as well as the language in which he is translating the work into. Moreover, a good translator must specifically be a good communicator in the target language. A good translator must have the knowledge, skill and experience in this business; In fact the translator has a very serious responsibility not to change the meaning in any way. He must be careful not to add anything to the meaning, or to leave any part of the meaning. Actually the task of translator is more difficult than the writer himself, the writer is free to express his ideas and views in the way he sees suitable and in the vocabulary he likes, but the translator confines himself to the words the writer used and he must be careful not to add anything to the meaning, or to leave any part of the meaning.

Conclusion:

From what has been mentioned above, it is obvious that translation is the bridge of appreciation, love and friendship among nations, it is necessary for progress and prosperity .By the means of translation new civilizations evolved, the western civilization was established on the Arabic and islamic civilization; scientific, books were translated from Arabic into Latin, and it was the basis for the western civilization.

English Arabic translation has been and continues to be of great importance, because both languages ​​are great world languages, moreover current events, wars, conflicts and struggles in our world add to this importance; English is the language of big powers and Arabic is the language of the region where conflicts take place for many reasons mentioned previously

Idioms pose a challenge to translators from English into Arabic. English is full of idioms which can not be understood from the individual words .A translator of English idioms into Arabic needs good knowledge of the two languages ​​and a good knowledge of both cultures .Idioms reflect culture traditions, cultural identities and history of any nation. They give us insight into history, culture, traditions, and values, morals. So idioms reflect our common humanity through language.

Source by Fatima Ibrahim Ahmed Al Menoufy

Aquarians and the Coming Age of Aquarius

Twelve Nations of the Zodiac Each of us cycles through the Signs of the ancient Zodiac, though the order of this cycle is not known. While here on Earth we meet members of The Twelve, each forming a mystical 'nation' with language and customs all its own.

Even if you are not an Aquarian by Sun Sign, it can be well worth some investigation! You may have someone very important in your life who is an Aquarian and a little extra insight can only help. And, everyone has the Sign of Aquarius governing one of the 12 houses in their birth chart. If this is the 1st house, Aquarius is your Rising Sign or Ascendant and really, is the "other half" of your Self, partnered with your Sun Sign. If you have several planets (or the goddesses or Lilith, Chiron, Saturn, or Uranus, for example) in Aquarius, then you are more of an Aquarian than you know!

If you discover you have Venus in Aquarius – or Mars in Aquarius – this can change your entire self-understanding, for Venus rules not only our partnerships – including marriage – but to a large extent our friendships and the quality and tone of all our relationships . This is true of the material world we attract into our life, including of course our financial resources.

Each of us, at some point in our Earth History, is born into the Aquarian Sign, probably many times in the course of great Cycles of Time here on Earth. As we head into the Age of Aquarius, we are, in a way, all Aquarians now, for we will collectively experience the Aquarian archetype in a way not seen on Earth, for a long, long time …

We are not sure when The Age of Aqarius begins. Some think it began in the Sixties, with the explosion of the Baby Boomers into the world. Some feel it will start when Pluto, the karmic and evolutionary planet par excellence, moves into Aquarius in 2023 and remains there through 2043. The Age itself will last around 2,000 years, and if Uranus and Saturn have anything at all to do with it, we may have to hold onto our hats! Nothing about the Sixties was simple. The transformations begun were deep, mysterious and in some ways, even disturbing … much Uranus earthquake debris has had to be revisited, and sorted through, by Saturn. In any case, here's to the Age of Aquarius – it looks like we'll be finding the Maps as we go along …

Sun Sign as Archetype Each Sun Sign represents a major Archetype or cosmic pattern – a flowing, dynamic field of energy which enfolds, shapes and interacts with a given person, two people, or group of persons – even nations – in a given time. An Archetype is an emanation of God – one of the Energy Patterns / Stories in the Creator's Mind. Hence we refer to the archetypes as gods and goddesses. They are mysteries which we honor, and whose force we acknowledge and respect.

Archetypes encompass Past, Present and Future. They also contain their own opposites, which in a way, helps us to work through their main "lesson" – the moral of the story. Each has a strength, and each its weakness or Achilles heel. Like the great tales from mythology, we connect, as the Hero of the story, with qualities within us – the Dark and the Light – of which we had been completely unaware. As we come to know these mysteries of the Self, our story unfolds outward, to join with, and to become part of, the World we create with others.

The Sun Sign is one of the Hero's many Roads – the one we have chosen for this life … we can not put it in a bottle or under a microscope – any more than an actor or actress can become too self-conscious when acting their role. We have to throw ourselves into being ourselves – and not look back in over-analysis or too many "if only's …" We are on a journey of exploration and self-expression in the cosmos. We are not entirely in charge of this journey! So ride the wave and do not be too concerned about the negatives of your Sun Sign – because those negatives are actually part of the positives, but this we only understand in the fullness of time.

Aquarius * Bearer of Mysterious Waters The Water Bearer – symbol of Aquarius – hints at a heavenly or esoteric essence, which Aquarius alone brings to humanity. The Waters are associated with life-giving water for the planet Earth – and this may lie in the original "gods" who taught irrigation to early human beings on the planet (see Enki, below). The Waters are also said to be symbolic of the waters of spiritual life – Aquarius symbolized baptism in some faiths, including Christian.

Ancient teachings hint that the "waters" are actually a kind of force field or energy field, better understood through physics than through the earth sciences and the waters of our oceans and the rains. The Waters of Aquarius certainly appear to be connected with Neptune, but this may be less to do with the seas on earth, and more to do with a kind of Cosmic Sea. There are a great many Sumerian tablets whose writings contain a rich mythology, which, as Zecharia Sitchin has suggested, may actually be history, and not legend. Beginning with The Twelfth Planet, Sitchin lays out what the tablets say about the gods / astronauts who came to the Earth hundreds of thousands of years ago. Astrology – in terms of the 12 signs of the Zodiac, and the celestial and earth timing used by the astronauts, played a vital role in the visits of these "gods" and their role in creating humanity along with establishing rich gardens of civilization across the face of the earth.

In a fascinating description of how our solar system was created, the "gods" describe in detail the original act of conception between a solitary pair of planets floating in a rich sea of ​​Waters which became the Petrie dish for the creation, one by one, of each of the major planets in our solar system. As a final touch in the somewhat turbulent emergence and stabilization of the solar system, it was said that it was Neptune's odd, magnetic, hypnotic energy field which ultimately held the other planets in their orbits. Interestingly, Sumerian records show that these early "gods" – and the Sumerian civilization they nurtured – knew about all the planets in our solar system, including Uranus, "discovered" in 1781 which is the outer planet that co-rules Aquarius with Saturn. They also associated Aquarius with perhaps the most remarkable of all the astronauts, a "god" called Enki.

Enki * Ancient Origins of the Aquarius Archetype Enki is very similar to Prometheus, who stole Fire from the Gods to give to Mankind. The theme is oddly the same, for Enki gave to early humanity the practical plans and blueprints for civilization, such as the science of irrigation. Enki is said to have defended Humanity from his brother gods, when they were disappointed with our moral weaknesses (specifically, obsession with sex, it seems), and to have given the plans for the Ark before the Flood to the original Noah, whose story was later, along with others, lifted from Sumerian records to form the early books of the Bible.

Enki was always associated in Sumerian records with Aquarius, but was also in some contexts associated with the sign of Capricorn (planet Saturn) and sign of Pisces (planet Neptune). It appears that this triple designation comes from both the "ages" in which he visited and worked on Earth, and to the kind of work, as a science officer, he performed. If Enki is the ultimate archetype for Aquarius, this may be why Aquarius is more complex – and also more mysterious – than is so often portrayed in Astrology.

Earth-Centered Aquarius Enki was the science officer and genetics specialist. The ancient tablets from Sumer state that it was Enki, with the help of a Mother Goddess who was also a specialist in this area, who physically created humanity. They did this by blending the DNA of one of the young gods with that of early Man – a "primitive" found already evolving on earth. Enki loved humanity as a father, in that sense, and continued to nurture and develop all civilization, as he was the keeper of the great technological keys for agriculture, irrigation, and much more.

Aquarius represents, through this amazing historical record, a unique bridge between the "gods and men" – including the genetic bridge. This creates an aura of mystery around Aquarius as a sign, and suggests hidden reasons why Aquarians always feel as if they are "strangers in a strange land". As participants in the Enki archetype, Aquarians do feel an immense sense of connectedness and indeed, responsibility for, the fate of humanity. Humanitarian issues like refugees, feeding the hungry, freedom of movement, speech, thought and association are all concerns to which the Aquarian, and the Aquarius part of each person's birth chart, will resonate. The formation of international bodies such as the War Crimes Tribunal and the United Nations is a direction for humanity which Aquarians will tend not to see as some fearful New World Order but rather welcome its coming as freedom from the tyranny of secretive houses, closed off villages , nations behind barbed wire, and so on. As we shall see, Aquarians promote freedom and revolution (Uranus), but justice, order and world courts (Saturn) too.

Aquarius "remembers" that while we carry the genes of the early humans within us, we take out "image" from those who came from the Stars – out there. These memories convey a keen sense of destiny beckoning us toward the starry heavens. We feel them awaken in astrology, astronomy, NASA, science fiction, Star Trek, Star Wars, and in our longing hearts as we look upwards on a clear night. The Aquarian essence of humanity reminds us, collectively, of our destiny … that we are not forever earthbound, but will become a song of Life on the solar winds. Just as ancient space travellers like Enki helped to carry out the Creator's plan, so we too will carry ourselves, as the Seed Children, to other planets, other systems, other worlds.

Saturn and Uranus – Chakra Wheels of Aquarius We come to understand the sign and archetypal energy of Aquarius through the story of Enki – science-oriented, rebellious, freedom-defending archetype of Enki – Bringer of Gifts to Humanity. But there are other forces at work in Aquarius and other ways to meet and understand this sign. There are the two huge planets that rule Aquarius – Uranus, The Great Awakener and Saturn, Father of Time and Lord of Karma. The Aquarian can best be understood as a person and as a force for change when we understand these two planets and how they work together.

Whether you are an Aquarian or have one in your life, you may find you have signed on for deep, often violent, shocking awakenings – these resonate to Uranus, the modern ruling planet of Aquarius. However – the awakening of Uranus seems then to be followed by a period of equally intense shaping, disciplining, teaching, and chastening energies – these will be Saturn, ancient ruler of Aquarius, and known as the Lord of Karma!

So Uranus brings revolution, but Saturn goes back, retraces the steps as to why the revolution was needed, examines the science and philosophy involved, and works out new Laws to contain and direct the new architecture rising on the ruins that Uranus has left behind.

The Aquarian Archetype and its ruling planets are about violent change, upheaval, accounting, facing truth, and reaping of karma. Aquarians – and the Age of Aquarius – will bring dramatic, sweeping and often disturbing changes into our lives and into planetary history. It is hard to imagine where we got the idea that The Aquarian Age was going to be so suddenly harmonious. We already see and feel around us the immense political, climatic and spiritual upheavals across this planet which may reach a level of instability which will threaten the survival of this world … whether it survives, or does not, and is "reborn" as worlds often are, is beyond our knowledge now. However, when the Uranus forces – bombs, revolutions, earthquakes, electrical storms, and the empowerment of the masses via the internet – are finished, it will require the other shoe to drop – the Saturnian elements of order, rebuilding and various forms of truth and reconciliation – to complete the Age of Aquarius.

The Aquarian Personality * Uranus and Saturn Aquarians are freedom-lovers, social challengers, stereotype-breakers, and innovators. They can change direction at a moment's notice. That is Uranus breathing through them! At the same time, Aquarians can be conservative, traditional, deeply loyal, stubborn, and fixated on justice not served. That is Saturn talking – usually lecturing! The Aquarian is thus strangely gifted at not only tearing down, but also building – if given the right opportunity. Aquarians can write laws and constitutions, and are found creating systems everywhere, whether in office procedures manuals, Mozart's great compositions, Einstein's new laws of the universe, Lincoln's proclamation of freedom for the slaves, and so on.

It is a mistake to overlook the role of Saturn in the life, gifts, and burdens of Aquarians. To live their Sun Sign, Aquarians need to accept without guilt or regret that they bring challenge to the lives of others, but Saturn makes them brood and worry, and doubt their own wunderkind Uranus-style energies. The Aquarius is always aware, at some level, that 'here "is only part-way there. There is always the feeling that the road of Humanity is still a long one, and that it somehow falls to the Aquarian, more than to other signs, to lead the way, to find the cure, to make the peace, or to raise the flag of freedom and revolution. Aquarians feel a deep need to love and be loved, yet also feel, as in a tragic play on stage, that in the end, they will have to ride off into the sunset, to find another people in need of a leader, or another town in need of a sheriff. The peculiar sense of history living through the Aquarian, of having to share his or her life with "something larger", is one of the most powerful aspects of this archetypal Sign.

Relationships with Aquarians It is often observed that it is hard to get close to an Aquarian, that Aquarius is an Air Sign and thus intellectually gifted but emotionally cold. Yet this is not thought to be the case with Air Signs Libra and Gemini. There is something innately abstract about the Aquarian Soul, as if the price of certain gifts is the loss of others. One of the lost gifts is the ability to merge with others – as if this would be so destructive to the purpose of Aquarius that it has been made almost genetically impossible for Aquarians to really seek, accept or achieve intimacy. For this reason, of course, the rest of the "typical profile" holds – Aquarians have a very low tolerance for the more clinging, dependent personality type, as such people will almost drown their souls. They will value most highly someone who has goals and aspirations beyond them the relationship itself, so that the Aquarian is assured that they are not themselves going to be the focus of intense personal drives.

For many people the ultimate idea of ​​happiness is to be completely indispensable to someone, and in turn, they offer such status to their partner or friend. This makes a relationship akin to staking a claim, really, of a kind of ownership. This is extremely uncomfortable for the Aquarian, but there are reasons why. For the Aquarian, staking a claim to someone, as one might a gold mine, runs counter to the spiritual requirement to recognize the complete freedom of another human being. "Ownership" of another being, even an animal, seems foreign – a form of slavery. An Aquarian asks: "Are not we fighting all over the world to free our brothers and sisters from the chains of being owned? Why would I want to own you, or have you somehow acquire" rights "to me?"

Often people complain that the interests and enquiring minds of Aquarians can be overwhelming. They feel they are in the presence of a force of nature, a gust of mental energy sweeping them up like a whirlwind, rather than a "normal" everyday person. They feel that the Aquarian's futuristic, restless urge to explore new frontiers suggests lack of contentment with the status quo, and this can undermine a relationship. But the reverse is often true – Aquarians find many non-Aquarians underwhelming, and feel depressed and alienated when their dreams and visions are misinterpreted, resented, and in numerous subtle or open ways, rejected. Aquarians will panic when incarcerated within needy emotional webs, and feel existential pain in an exchange where their ideas meet with a blank stare or a change of subject.

The Soul, for the Aquarian, is what the person's "essence" really is – that is why an Aquarian may seem to find your everyday doings and personality uninteresting! But if an Aquarian can connect with your soul, and you are interested in his, then the bond will be instant and forever, regardless of the worldly obstacles or setbacks which may come. Because the soul connection comes most naturally to an Aquarian, friendship is in many ways the most natural relationship for an Aquarian. Freedom, easygoing companionship, shared interests and ideals, all these succeed where emotional demands and social measurements simply drive the Aquarian into first depression, then desperation, and finally flight.

Aquarius In Love In the end, perhaps only an Aquarian can know and love another Aquarian, though Leo, Libra, Sagittarius and Gemini can make good partners. Aquarius appreciates the deep, silent, unquestioning loyalty of Leo, Sagittarius' quest for knowledge, the piercing, searching intensity of Scorpio, the mental gifts of Virgo, Libra's quest for justice, Gemini's variety of interests and verbal skills, Capricorn's serious approach to life (they are both ruled by Saturn), and the innovative, fearless leadership of Aries. Aquarius can be overwhelmed by, and distrustful of, the secrecy and emotional needs of the Water Signs – Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces. The Aquarian does love mystery and drama along with freedom, however, and this combination often leads them into odd relationships – with someone who is married, in jail, of another race or culture, possibly (with Saturn in the background denoting karma) handicapped or dealing with a serious karmic problem. This of course can draw the Scorpio personality – and the shadow of Pluto's secrets – directly to an Aquarian. The fact is, all relationships form, and un-form, as karma rises and fades in our lives – until we break free of old patterns, so one's astrological sign is not the final word. It is often, however, the first word!

Aquarian males and females are curiously alike since Aquarius is somewhat androgynous. Aquarians are capable of painfully obsessive love, which seems to possess them with the wind and fury of their ruling planet Uranus … and often in conflict with their higher ideals, as Saturn will remind them. Inevitably, it seems, the Aquarian will return to a solitary path, unless he or she can find that comfortable, roomy relationship that starts and ends with friendship between equals.

Aquarius Woman She will touch the life of a man with an unforgettable yearning for something he may never grasp, but is awakened to. The Animus in the Aquarian Woman is cosmic, spiritual, and magical. Thus home, fireside and babies can be foreign to her. She can however transform a home and family with her playful, ever-young presence, and she can be deeply, fiercely loyal to a man who seeks redemption and transformation. Pick an Aquarian woman if you have a strong heart and powerful ideals; if you need intuitive understanding and acceptance of what makes you different from the crowd. An Aquarian woman will forgive you much, but do not – even once – lie to her. This is true of an Aquarian man, perhaps even more so, because a woman's lies will damage his Anima – though he may rally, if he feels you really need rescuing! Children will love an Aquarian woman, and she will defend and nurture their uniqueness. She will touch their souls, and stress knowledge, friendship and equality as values.

Aquarius Man If you love an Aquarian man , do not look for social status, money or security. He may become famous, yet lose it all, often through no fault of his own, as part of the Aquarian Archetype. Be prepared to share him with his work, and understand it is always, for him, a kind of priesthood no matter how humble his setting. Aquarian males can also be attracted to the underworld of crime, simply because of its wild Uranus lawlessness, only to discover that Saturn rules the mob with an iron hand!

Aquarian men have been not only revolutionaries in history, but a large percentage of those called geniuses have been Aquarian males. There is a one-pointedness, an intensity of focus combined with other-worldly attunement, that makes such a man hard to engage in a sustained, day-to-day manner.

However, he can be a surprisingly good family man, provided he is not a closet priest or flirting with underworld connections! Ronald Reagan was an Aquarian man who did – and had – it all! He had the fame, the first divorce, and somewhat unorthodox children and family life, but he also was one-half of an amazing love story that lasted through to his death, and beyond. The Aquarian male is surprised by the warmth of love and family, but often grows into it quite nicely! He can be a delightful father, but not always in the conventional sense, for he may be more interested in a child's original ideas and values ​​than in shaping them in a parental style. Aquarian men often seem to have had truly dominant father figures (Saturn) and in turn, they can spend their lives remaining rebellious teenage males. The child in him does not accept authority, any more than the adult in him does, and he is uncomfortable when forced to discipline anyone, including his children – so may do it badly.

An Aquarian man can, when pushed too hard to be head of the family, become harsh and emotionally or even physically violent with their families (Saturn, Uranus). This is because they are uncomfortable in a fully adult role – and under pressure will revert to the dominant archetypal Saturn male against which they have spent their lives rebelling. He will learn quite happily however to share home chores and is an ideal house-husband for he needs the protection of a home and appreciates it more than most. Aquarian men and woman are both androgynous and will work together as comrades, be it making dinner or fixing the car, so they can, if they recognize it, be most compatible partnered with another Aquarian. If it is your dharma – or perhaps your karma! – To love an Aquarian, awaken your inner vision of humanity – its common dreams – and you will walk hand and hand in freedom out into the Stars.

Aquarians and Group Karma The Aquarian can suffer from the darker aspects of the collective consciousness so much a part of his sign. Aquarians are often tentative, marginal members of a group to start with, seeming to hold themselves ready to leave at any moment. The Aquarian often suffers deeply as a result of, and as the focus of, group dynamics. It is as if the Aquarian, that the World (Saturn in the Tarot) – and all its "noble causes" – is still Maya to be passed through and left behind. Aquarians frequently absorb group karma such that they suddenly, without warning, become the "scapegoat" onto which the unowned, and disowned self- transformative urges of the group become projected … The group will be changed, and often for the better, in the end … but in the process the group, as an entity, will literally drive the Aquarius away. He or she must set out, once again, alone on the Road – like the Fool of the Tarot.

Aquarius * Darkness At Noon The task of the Aquarius Archetype is the evolution of civilization through dramatic, revolutionary break-throughs that affect grass-roots humanity. Technological scientific knowledge is one branch of Aquarius' contribution. The political framework of peace, justice and equality for all is the other branch. Without the political vision, there will be no Earth. Aquarius must rise above personal desires and ambitions in order to make a contribution to the good of the whole. The karmic trap, weakness, Achilles heel of Aquarius is in making these large altruistic goals into obsessions that are in fact extensions of the Aquarian's Ego.

Throughout history, this theme has manifested in Aquarian revolutions in which humanity has been sacrificed to the personal ambitions of visionary leaders who tolerate no obstacles to their own plans. The secret societies which believe themselves to be the carriers of the Great Blueprint for humanity have often been behind such dramatic events as the French Revolution, and the founding of America. These secret societies, many linked to Christianity, Judaism and mystic Paganism, have given birth to vast experiments (truly Uranus!) In human political life which have been disastrous for humanity as a whole. The roots of these transformative efforts (communism, fascism and the occult blueprint of the French Revolution) lie in the legends and archetypes of those who first came from Space to help seed and develop this planet. There are glimpses of the experimental genius gone bad in Atlantis – as channeled through Edgar Cayce.

Mother Russia Russia is said to be ruled by Aquarius, and its Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, was led by Lenin, whose Moon was in Aquarius. The revolution was a truly Aquarian enterprise in the scope of its vision (Moon), violence (Uranus) and obsession with authority, control and reshaping (Saturn). It was only fitting that it would be an Aquarian, Boris Yeltsin, who in 1989 broke apart the last rotten walls of the Soviet Union. Yet, the post-Soviet era in Russia has not progressed beyond the revolutionary chaos of Uranus to the orderly development of Saturn. Uranus still haunts Russia in the internal lawlessness that prevails. Saturn's presence is seen only in the new secret police, the oligarchs and their bag-men – enforcers of codes and "laws" best suited to the underworld.

American Dreams Closer to home, Dick Cheney is an Aquarius and he certainly led the "Neo-Conservative" and Christian-Zionist attempt to remake the Middle East in a grand vision beginning with the ill-starred invasion of Iraq. The violence of Uranus has hardly abated in Iraq, and such elements of Saturn as are present have been mostly its worst features – justice turned into vengeance, order turned into tyranny and control turned into organized cruelty – Guantanamo Bay and the Patriot Act cast the dark shadow of Saturn's totalitarian streak across the United States and other nations who followed so willingly along.

The United States has an Aquarian Moon, and many strongly Aquarian presidents, but her dreams for mankind have yet to be shown to be worth the price that has been paid for American Aquarian visions. The genocides – of the Native American peoples, of the buffalo – and the oppressions – in Vietnam, Iraq, West Bank and Gaza, (open-air concentration camps run by a US-backed Israel) – all these were born under these "grand visions "and schemes so deeply linked to the controlling, Big-Picture drives of Aquarius.

The current US president, Barak Obama, has Aquarius Rising, and Jupiter in Aquarius as well – Grand Dreams indeed! While some fear he will fail in his great visions, others fear he may succeed. It is too soon to tell what America – and this latest of many Presidents with strong Aquarian features – will do for itself and for the world. But the time of reckoning grows closer …

Aquarius * Light At Dawn Cautionary tales indeed … Aquarius can create a perfect Karmic Storm, tossing us back and forth between the worst features of both Uranus and Saturn. It is as if Saturn can so quickly become the driving, narrow, cruel Ego, and Uranus can become the eruption of the contents of the Unconscious in the life of an individual or in that of a nation. Only a powerful philosophical and spiritual framework can hold these twin forces in check. The Ego yields to the Spirit so that Saturn becomes the indwelling teacher and shaman, while Uranus yields to the direction of the Higher Self – blending the wild, creative, free elements of Soul with love and higher purpose.

In each Aquarian's life, these vast themes will play out in much smaller, but often very dramatic forms. Of all the signs, Aquarius is the most likely to mystify those who live within it and through it as an archetype, and those drawn into its waves of energy. Yet it is through the Aquarian Archtype, wherever it lies in our charts, that we see further and farther than the horizons, and hear distant drummers in other realms.

We are all Aquarians in the Aquarian Age, in ways we may not see on the surface of our lives. But as the Dawn Light breaks, the Big Jet carrying Humanity taxies down the runway, is turning now, getting set for its final run. Building speed not seen for thousands of years, it will lift off at last, and take us home to the Stars.

© Carol Leigh Rice 2010

Source by Carol Rice

Empowering Children With Low Self Esteem

Self esteem is a key ingredient in maximizing children's potential in academic achievement, social success, and personal happiness. This statement alone, was the inspiration behind the motivation for Children's Story Book 'The Magic Sunglasses' written by Auriel Blanche. (Also known as Angela Buck)

We all want to protect our children, keep them from harms way and safeguard them from danger. Fundamentally it is the child's own inner beliefs and self esteem that is the only thing that can act like armor and create a shield to protect them from the challenges the world has to throw at them. For a child to reach their full potential: self esteem is the primary and most crucial tool. This is the devise that Angela Buck has focused on throughout her child literacy program. She prides herself on actively infusing inspiration to children across the world. By sparking imaginations through her literature, Angela gives the children the freedom to learn and the ability to overcome the negatives life may throw at them. Angela encourages the use of attributes a child has within to enable them to live with independence and self worth.

Angela Buck successfully taps into many children's spirits on a global scale, making them visualize desirable outcomes and make positive connections with their inner purpose. She does this through her skill of creative and innovative writing which engages children of all ages. Along with her interactive workshops and programs, The Magic Sunglasses, her acclaimed children's fun fantasy book is a must read for all children in today's society. Especially for those who are saddened with a low self esteem. Samantha is a character a child with a lack of confidence can relate to. She too has not fully discovered that she has a special value all her own. Throughout the story she finds a power that the reader will be inspired to find in themselves. The books motivation is to show we all have that special value, which we can use to help us live the lives we really want and to be happy. The magic sunglasses in their physical form mysteriously find their way to Samantha. They have wonderful powers which support her and show her what you can do if you really try! The important notion behind the story is that these possibilities are still achievable when she no longer has them. The results this book entails is seen in the readers improvement of personal motivation, their positivity for their own capabilities, their respect for their own special values ​​and the optimisms for their own self worth.

Children with low self-esteem may not want to try new things, and may frequently speak negatively about themselves; they may be over critical, lack confidence and miss out on the fun and learning that other children benefit from. It is known that the use of a child's imagination helps children to develop their unique personality, beliefs, and strengths. Children work through their problems and explore their feelings while reading this book. Through their new limitless view they are now able to set meaningful and purposeful goals or intentions. Samantha has not any limitations to her dreams; she tries new things and can reach goals without an aid. This can then be relayed in the life of the reader.

Patterns of self-esteem start very early in life. This is why Angela Bucks book is aimed at 7-12 year olds, this age is crucial for developments; emotionally, physically and intellectually. Learning new skills and gaining belief in their potentials are great ways to improve self esteem in children. This is exactly what the themes throughout The Magic Sunglasses inspires to do. They teach the reader to praise themselves and use their imaginations to motivate all welcomed possibilities.

Angela Buck understands that Children with low self esteem need a positive role model. For this reason she created the amazing Samantha. She is always polite and friendly. She is playful and imaginative. She enjoys making her dreams come true and strives to reach her potential. She is a happy child, enthusiastic and charismatic. She is respectful of others and through self discovery learns how to cope with the challenges she faces with optimism and self worth. All of which are attributes that a role model should inspire.

To overcome self esteem issues and lack of confidence we need to Identify and redirect the child's inaccurate beliefs. Self-esteem is all about the way you judge yourself. Angela strives to promote the ethos of creating a worldwide community of children who have learnt how to value themselves and to use their potential, to live personally successful lives and contribute to the success of others. These aspects are explored through the characters in the book as well as through her interactive workshops, and her new ventures and material. Inaccurate beliefs are created by other inflicting methods surrounding children, ie other adults, other children, television, magazines or many other reflective methods. The Magic Sunglasses compromises these inaccurate beliefs and offers a more positive and preferable aspect to life. Samantha the main character does not embellish in perfection, attractiveness or being the best at everything but instead appreciates her own abilities, enjoys her own imagination and strives to promote her own specialties. Along with promoting children's individual self-discovery and self-esteem Angela has the aim of teaching the importance of discovering others self worth's and becoming respectfully aware of others. To not only understand their own specialties but to seek and understanding the positives and strengths in everyone. Angela hopes a generation of individuals who grow up with a natural respect for others regardless of race, religion or cultural will one day exist. The practice of imagining themselves in Samantha's situation is very important for developing compassion, empathy and understanding others fully, by discouraging flawed beliefs and offering inspiration for positive healthy ways of thinking, the child's self-esteem and confidence will inevitably improve. This will benefit the academic, social and personal development needed at this age.

It is known that a child needs affection and love. Without this it is inevitable that a low self esteem will occur. For this reason The Magic Sunglasses would be a great read to improve the esteem. It is a warming and touching storyline that will be extremely heartfelt by the reader, making them feel happy inside. The transparent messages throughout the book are to teach the children to love themselves. This book will surely strengthen the child's heart. Positive feedback is always craved by children and important in their learning, for this reason the book encourages own thought and personal creativity. It also encourages using imaginations for possibilities and the motivation for achieving those opportunities. The Magic Sunglasses provides imaginary situations which allow them to practice creative solutions and transcend challenges. Both of which are tools that will set them for life.

A happy living environment is essential in areas of personal confidence and personal valuation. If a child has been constantly criticized, bullied or ignored during early childhood they will have much less child self-esteem than children who are praised, encouraged, listened to and valued. Often it is the case that a child has not had or can not respond to the praise or encouragement from a parent or teacher alone. This means that it is important that every child has the confidence within themselves to appreciate their own self worth and specialties. All of which are creatively demonstrated with fantastic illustrations in Angela Bucks book. Another aspect to think of is that if a child is experiencing a troubled time they may need an embracive distraction. By reading The Magic Sunglasses an escapism is created for them. An inspirational and imaginative place of positivity and hedonism. A place of fun, friendship and endless possibility. Worry, fear, panic and anxiety are all counteracted with positive images by reading the magic sunglasses, all fantastically created by the amazing author Angela Buck.

Children with unhealthy self-esteem tend to fear interacting with others. They're uncomfortable in social settings and hate group activities as well as independent pursuits. When challenges arise, they feel negative toward finding solutions and belittle themselves. Children with low self esteem are afraid to say "I do not understand this." And therefore do not learn and develop as the others do. They do not know their strengths and focus on their weaknesses. The Magic Sunglasses give a sense of optimism throughout the story line. An interactive workshop is available just by contacting the author. This is where children can benefit from the participational activities and make friends through the interaction. They are encouraged to have fun, be creative and play imaginatively in order to explore the themes. In small groups the children can concentrate on the issues and communicate openly in discussions. This will enable the individuals within the groups to challenge and understand their own and others fear and problems. They will learn to inspire themselves and others to explore passions and dreams. All children in the previous workshops, enjoyed, learnt and benefitted from them. Many parents noticed differences in their children. Many children improved their self-esteem. Teachers were impressed and as a result were inspired to re-book again and again.

When these stories actually transform a child's life, bringing joy and happiness to it, you know the story is a winner. This touching, inspirational and heart-warming plot has repeatedly been transformed into optimistic true life stories for many children who have read it. From some of which, Angela has been inundated with positive testimonials, rewarding reviews and written letters of compliments.

"I was told by a friend of mine to get the magic sunglasses for my daughter who is 7, she loved it and I did too. I try to make her realize how special she is and this book was great in explaining this, the pictures were great and Katie loved to read it. in fact shes read it again and again, I will definitely recommend this to children with lack of confidence and parents who think their children may need help in self esteem. "Barbara Deaglee

"I used to hear my 8-year-old daughter putting herself down, saying things like" I'm so ugly "or" I can not do anything right. "I tried to assure her that none of these things were true, but nothing I said seemed to make any difference. I gave her The Magic Sunglasses and she loved it. shes read it a few times now. she is now so much happier, she comes home from school and tells us what shes been good at and she has even joined a dance club. I'd recommend this book to every mum who is worried about their child being down. " Julie Jacobs – Melton Mowbray

"Dear Angela, Thank you very much for your workshop at my childs school last month. She came home excitable telling me about her day, playing games and learning about the magic sunglasses. I thought nothing more of it until I went to a parent teacher meeting. I was told my daughter who is 7 had come out of herself. I know she was a little shy, would be afraid to talk out in class and would shy from asking the teacher for help sometimes, but I was told that she is now much chattier and participates in the classroom discussions more. Im amazed she has even auditioned for the school play. This I have been told has resulted in her grades improving. I have also seen a happier child, she is a lot chattier, has had many new friends round for tea and is very keen on keeping up to date with the website … "David Harper – Oldham

As you can see from these views, Angela Buck is a very inspirational lady, not only to children but to adults and parents over the globe. She shines beacons of light, inspires lasting change and empowers emotionally happy children to reach endless possibilities !!! How refreshing and delightful to benefit from The Magic Sunglasses and see it empower our children's minds and free their spirits to become flourishing children and ultimately successful adults! Get Involved in To her quest or to introduce your child to Samantha, Angela or The Magic Sunglasses purely click on the link – Http://themagicsunglasses.com .

Source by Kaley Herrick

More Than Friendship: Spiritual Kabbalah Friendship Bracelets

Friendship bracelets are generally given from one friend to another, they are a symbol of friendship. Doubtless, this is how they derive their names.

What is the Friendship Bracelet:

They are handmade, always; usually, from embroidery thread or floss. Friendship bracelets, which are a very spiritual gift, come in many different patterns and styles, however, most are based on the simple half-hitch knot. Actually, the making of these spiritual gifts is a version of the famous macramé. The amount of thread used in making the bracelet may as well and actually usually does vary. The smallest pattern known, that is a double chain knot, requires at least two strings, whereas the candy stripe can have as few as three strings and as many as forty, based on pattern and thickness. Because of their versatility, they are worn by both females and males of all different ages.

Here is one reason why friendship bracelets are considered to be a spiritual gift. The hand-weaving and knot-craft used to make traditional patterns actually stems from Native American handcrafts – and particularly the aesthetics are found among the traditions of the Central American Native Americans. These indigenous people were highly spiritual and cosmic, therefore the bracelets carry some of this wonderful and unique spirituality in them.

Giving & Receiving:

Have you ever received a friendship bracelet as a gift from someone? It is a truly special moment in one's life or in the life of a friendship. The way it works is this, the friend who receives the bracelet paid for it with all of the hard work, love and positive spiritual energy which went into making it.

Taking off the bracelet before it falls off naturally is a sign that your friendship has gone sour. Still, another variation of this tradition is that the recipient of the bracelet is entitled to make a wish. Now, after the bracelet wears out and falls off naturally the wrist or ankle which it was worn on, the wish will come true. This always works successfully.

The act and art of giving a friendship bracelet to a friend carries great sentimental value and weight; and it successfully shows the friend that he or she is special to them. It is a great of course inexpensive idea for a gift.

Kabbalah Friendship Bracelets:

The special meaning of the traditional friendship bracelet can be enhanced by weaving into it elements with spiritual meaning and power, for example the Kabbalah red string. Since the red string itself is similar to the threads making up the friendship bracelet it fits in perfectly and gives the gift of friendship and love an added value of protection and safekeeping believed to emanate from the red string.

Source by Michal Freizen